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Participant Biographies

Timerbaev small photograph Roland Timerbaev

Ambassador Roland M. Timerbaev graduated from Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1949 and entered the Soviet diplomatic service in the same year. Ever since, until his retirement in 1992, he was dealing with issues of international security and arms control. He served in the Soviet Mission to UN three times - in 1950-1953, 1958-1963 and, finally, in 1986-1987, as First Deputy Permanent Representative with the rank of ambassador. His last diplomatic post was Permanent Representative of USSR/Russia to International Organizations in Vienna (1988-1992).

Timerbaev took part in many international negotiations on arms control and nonproliferation, including the London Subcommittee of the UN Disarmament Commission (1957), the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (1966-1968),  International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Committee on comprehensive safeguards (1970-1971), SALT-I Treaty (1971), BTW Convention (1972), "Threshold" Test Ban Treaty (1974), PNE Treaty (1974-1976), Nuclear Suppliers Group (1975-1977), CTBT (1977-1980). He took part in six NPT Review Conferences.

Ambassador Timerbaev has a PhD degree from the Institute of World Economy and International Relations of the Academy of Sciences (1967) and degree of Doctor of Sciences from the Diplomatic Academy (1982). He is the author of 150 publications, including over a dozen books. Among them - "Verification of Arms Control and Disarmament" (1983), "Russia and Nuclear Nonproliferation" (1999), "International Control of Atomic Energy" (2003). In 2007 he published his personal reflections "Stories about the Past Years."

In 1992-1995 Roland Timerbaev was visiting professor and Ambassador-in-Residence at the Monterey Institute of International Studies in California.

At present he is Chairman of the Board of the Center for Policy Studies (PIR Center).

Rissanen small photograph Jenni Rissanen

Jenni Rissanen is an independent analyst and writer based in Vienna, Austria.

She has worked on international arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation questions since 1997. In 1999, she worked at the Permanent Mission of Finland to the Geneva-based Conference on Disarmament. From 2000 to 2001 she was Analyst at the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, monitoring and writing analysis of multilateral negotiations in Geneva and New York, including that of the Conference on Disarmament, NPT, and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and the First Committee of the UN General Assembly. In 2002, she helped to create and launch the BioWeapons Prevention Project (BWPP) and was its first Project Coordinator. In 2002 she joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), serving as the Agency's External Relations Officer in Geneva until 2005.

Ms. Rissanen holds a BA in Mass Communication from the University of Maine, and a MA in International Policy Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies, where she focused on nonproliferation studies. She is a member of Women in International Security (WIIS).

Bunn small photograph George Bunn

George Bunn is a writer, professor and lawyer who helped negotiate the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT). He serves today as a Consulting Professor at Stanford University's Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC). In 1946, Bunn came home from service on a troop-carrying ship of the U.S. Navy. He believed his life had been saved by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan, but at the expense of many Japanese lives. He read the first U.S. plan for future control of nuclear weapons, the Acheson-Lillienthal Report, and went to law school to learn how to be a negotiator of agreements to control nuclear weapons. He got his opportunity to be a negotiator during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations of the 1960s. He helped draft legislation creating a new U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in 1961 and became its general counsel that year. During the years that followed, his most important service was on the U.S. negotiating delegation that produced the NPT of 1968. He had earlier served as a practicing lawyer in Washington D.C. In the 1970s and 1980s he was a law teacher and then law school dean at the University of Wisconsin, and then a teacher of international law and strategy at the U.S. Naval War College. He is the author or editor of many publications, the most recent of which is U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy: Controlling Today's Threats (Brookings and CISAC: 2006) for which he is co-editor and one of the authors. Most of his other publications of the last two decades appear on the Stanford University CISAC website.

Rockwood small photograph Laura Rockwood

Laura Rockwood is Principal Legal Officer and Section Head for Nonproliferation and Policy-making in the Office of Legal Affairs of the IAEA, where she has served since 1985. Her primary areas of responsibility are safeguards and nonproliferation. She provides legal support to the Department of Safeguards, as well as to the Iraq Nuclear Verification Office (INVO, formerly the Action Team) established to carry out Agency activities pursuant to United Nations Security Council resolutions related to Iraq's nuclear weapons program. She has also participated in the last four conferences of the States Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).

Ms. Rockwood has been involved in the negotiation, interpretation and implementation of IAEA safeguards agreements (including those concluded with Iran, Libya, North Korea and South Africa), and was the principal author of the document that became the new legal instrument developed to strengthen IAEA safeguards, the Model Additional Protocol (INFCIRC/540). She has also been involved in the trilateral negotiations between the IAEA, the Russian Federation and the United States of a draft agreement for the verification of materials released from weapons programs.

Ms. Rockwood received a BA in Social Sciences from the University of California, Berkeley, and a Juris Doctor from Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco. She is a member of the California and Washington, DC bars.

Kratzer small photograph Myron Kratzer

Myron Kratzer is a consultant specializing in international nuclear policy issues.

From 1944 to 1946 he served as a military and, later, a civilian staff member of Los Alamos Laboratory, engaged in the recovery of plutonium from processing wastes. In 1947, he received the degree of Bachelor of Chemical Engineering from Ohio State University. From 1948 to 1951 he was employed as a research engineer by Standard Oil of Indiana, in the petrochemical area.

From 1951 to 1971 Kratzer held a variety of positions in the staff of the Atomic Energy Commission, including Assistant General Manager for International Activities, the senior international post of the Atomic Energy Commission. From 1971 to 1975 he served overseas in the Department of State, as Counselor for Scientific and Technological Affairs in the American Embassies in Buenos Aires and Tokyo. From 1975 to 1977 Kratzer was Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Nuclear Energy and Energy Technology Affairs, then the senior nuclear position in the State Department, including one year as Acting Assistant Secretary for Oceans, Environment and Science. He is the only individual to have held the senior international nuclear post in both the Department of State and the Atomic Energy Commission or its successors.

Following retirement from the Department of State in 1977, Kratzer joined International Energy Associates Limited, a Washington consulting firm, serving as Vice President - International, Director and Director of its Japanese affiliate, International Energy Associates of Japan Limited (IEAJ). He retired from IEAJ in 1986, becoming an independent consultant, his current position. He also served as Director of Urenco, Inc. and Urenco Investments, Inc., the U.S. subsidiaries of Urenco Limited, a trinational enterprise engaged in uranium enrichment. Following the first Gulf War, he was a consultant to the U.S. Ambassador-At-Large for Nuclear Nonproliferation in the development of U.S. positions on international nuclear safeguards.

During his government career, Kratzer headed or served on numerous U.S. Delegations to international nuclear conferences and negotiations, and was principal U.S. negotiator in the development of the IAEA safeguards system, including INFCIRCs 153 and 66. He also was the principal negotiator of numerous U.S. Agreements for Cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and participated in negotiation of the safeguards provisions of the Nonproliferation Treaty.

Kratzer has written and testified extensively on nuclear nonproliferation and international safeguards and has undertaken a number of studies of the international safeguards system for U.S. government agencies and other interested organizations. He is currently a consultant to Los Alamos National Laboratory, providing assistance to the U.S. Representative to the IAEA's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation.

He was co-chairman of the American Nuclear Society's Panel on Plutonium Disposition, a member of the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board's task force on nonproliferation aspects of plutonium disposition, chairman of the IAEA's Steering Committee on the 1997 Fuel Cycle Symposium, and co-chairman of its working group on international cooperation.

Kratzer has been issued a number of U.S. patents in the field of petrochemicals and received the Distinguished Service Award of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Superior Honor Award of the Department of State, the William A. Jump Award for Exemplary Service in Public Administration, and the Distinguished Service Award of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management. He served as General Chairman of the 1988 American Nuclear Society/European Nuclear Society International Conference and as Honorary Chairman of the ANS 1998 Meeting of the Americas.

Hooper small photographRich Hooper

Mr. Hooper has 40 years of experience in nuclear material safeguards, nonproliferation and related areas as both a technical contributor and manager. In mid-1991, while serving as Section Head – Statistical Analysis in the Department of Safeguards, IAEA – Mr. Hooper was seconded to the Iraq Action Team. He participated in 15 on-site inspections in Iraq and the completeness inspections in South Africa. Mr. Hooper became manager of Programme 93+2, the Agency's development programme for strengthened, more efficient safeguards in mid-1993. The Programme resulted in a radical modification of the approach to safeguards taken since 1971 and the NPT. This included the promulgation of the Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements (the Additional Protocol), which greatly expanded the legal basis for the Agency's implementation of safeguards. Mr. Hooper was the architect of this Programme and represented the work in a wide variety of official and professional fora. He became Director of the IAEA's Safeguards Concepts and Planning Division in 1994. Mr. Hooper left the Agency in 1998 and now works in Japan, the U.K. and Vienna as a private consultant. His focus remains strengthened safeguards and how the measures contained in the Additional Protocol should be integrated with traditional material accountancy.

Wulf small photograph Norman Wulf

Ambassador Norman A. Wulf served as the Special Representative of the President for Nuclear Nonproliferation from 1999 until his retirement in late 2002. In this capacity, he served as the United States Representative to preparatory committee meetings and review conferences for the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT); dealt with all matters pertaining to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); and issues arising in conjunction with nuclear weapon-free zones to which the United States is a party or may become one. Ambassador Wulf led the U.S. delegation to the highly successful 2000 NPT Review Conference and to the 2001 IAEA General Conference.

Before assuming the Special Representative position, Ambassador Wulf served for 14 years as the Deputy Assistant Director for Nonproliferation and Regional Arms Control of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA). He served longer as the Acting Assistant Director of this Bureau than any assistant director. This Bureau dealt with nuclear, missile, and chemical proliferation as well as conventional arms transfers using export controls to deny proliferants relevant technology while using regional arms control arrangements to address the insecurities that motivated countries to seek to proliferate. Among his accomplishments, Ambassador Wulf led the first team of Americans to visit North Korea's nuclear facilities; was the U.S. representative to the IAEA Committee that negotiated the protocol to strengthen IAEA safeguards (the Additional Protocol), the first significant strengthening of safeguards in over twenty years; and was instrumental in securing the 1995 decision to make the NPT permanent. From 1982-1985, he served as Deputy General Counsel of ACDA and worked on proliferation and arms control issues.

Prior to ACDA, Ambassador Wulf served as an office director in the Department of State handling primarily law of the sea, Antarctic and marine science issues. He also worked at the National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the Department of Commerce. His military service was from 1966 to 1972 in the U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General's Corps and included service in the Vietnam and in the Pentagon at the Navy's International Law Division.

Ambassador Wulf has been awarded the Secretary of State's Distinguished Service Award, two of the Senior Executive Service's Meritorious Executive Awards, one ACDA Distinguished Honor Award, three ACDA Superior Honor Awards and the Navy Meritorious Service Medal.

Ambassador Wulf holds a B.A. degree from Iowa Wesleyan College, a JD from the University of Iowa College of Law, and an LLM from the University of Miami.

Ambassador Wulf is married and has two adult children.

 Casterton small photograph Jim Casterton

Mr. Casterton has many years experience in multilateral and bilateral nuclear nonproliferation activities. He led the exercises within the Nuclear Suppliers Group and the Zangger Committee for the clarification of items on the trigger lists associated with enrichment, conversion and heavy water. He has also participated in all of the NPT Review Conferences since 1985, working primarily on safeguards and export control issues. As a member of the Canadian Mission to the UN Organizations in Vienna from 1996 to 2000, Mr. Casterton contributed to the negotiation of the Model Additional Protocol. Currently, he is the Director of the International Safeguards Division of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The Division is primarily responsible for safeguards implementation in Canada. Mr. Casterton is also Chair of the IAEA Director- General's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation.

Tilliwick small photograph Dr. D.L. Tillwick

Dr. Dieter Tillwick worked at the Nuclear Energy Corporation of South Africa (Necsa) for 31 years. He started with research utilising small angle neutron scattering, was later responsible for in-reactor irradiation of Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) components manufactured locally and later continued at the PWR nuclear fuel manufacturing plant where he was tasked with developing the quality management systems (QMS), responsible for all quality control (QC) activities, calibration and analytical laboratories, health safety and environment (HSE) and development of the new nuclear material accountancy system according to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements.

He managed the South African State System of Accountancy and Control (SSAC) during which period the Additional Protocol was ratified and entered into force, and was directly involved with the preparation of the South African Initial State declaration. He has served on the (IAEA) Standing Advisory Group for Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) for about six years.

Presently he is Senior Manager of the National Nuclear Manufacturing Centre (NNMC) at Necsa. The NNMC aims to promote the localisation of nuclear manufacturing capability, has a nuclear skills development facility, centralises engineering services for the whole of Necsa and does contract management of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) manufacturing contracts for Necsa.

He has served as Director on the South African National Accreditation System, was a member of the International Standards Organisation (ISO) work group on preparing ISO 10006 titled Quality Management in Project Management. He participated in several IAEA symposiums, technical meetings and expert missions, IAEA sponsored African regional meetings and training workshops, gave presentations at the Institute of Nuclear Material Management (INMM) meetings and in joint INMM and European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) workshops.

Howsley small photograph Dr. Roger Howsley

Dr. Howsley is currently the Director of Security, Safeguards and International Affairs (SSIA) for British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. and has over 25 years international experience relating to nuclear nonproliferation and security across the nuclear fuel cycle, working with the IAEA, Euratom, National Police Forces and security organisations. During that period he established and directed the SSIA function across the BNFL Group of companies (16 countries, 17,000 employees), establishing corporate governance arrangements and performance standards with which to provide assurance to the Main Board. He was Chairman of the UK's Atomic Energy Police Authority on a biennial basis between 1996 and 2005 and managed its transition to become the Civil Nuclear Constabulary in 2005, an armed police force of 800+ officers and support staff (budget £45M/year) responsible for the protection of the UK's civil nuclear sites. From 2001 he was appointed to serve on the IAEA Director-General's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation. He led BNFL's response to the terrorist attacks of 9/11, assessing and leading the £25 million programme of security enhancements at BNFL sites and interacting with Government at all levels including an 18-month investigation by the Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology. Dr. Howsley holds a first class honours degree and doctorate in Life Sciences from the University of Liverpool in England. He retains a strong professional interest in the climate change policy debate and the contribution that can be made by nuclear power to mitigate increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide and represented the European Nuclear Society at the Kyoto Protocol Conference in 1998. Dr. Howsley also played a leading role in the BNFL National Stakeholder Dialogue over a 6-year period from 1999 and participated in groups, including prominent anti nuclear representatives, examining plutonium management options and how better to engage the public and other stakeholders in civil nuclear security issues.

Naito small photograph Kaoru Naito

Mr. Naito, President of Nuclear Material Control Center, was born in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan in 1945. He is a graduate of University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, holding a Master's degree in Nuclear Engineering. He also obtained in May 1976 a Master of Public Systems Engineering degree from University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. In April 1971, he joined the Japanese Government, Science and Technology Agency (STA, now merged into MEXT, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology), and worked mostly in the area of nuclear safety and safeguards regulations. He was a Deputy-Director General when he left the Government in January 2001, after almost 30 years of service. He also served with the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), two times and for 7 years in total. He was the Director of SGDE (Division of Development and Technical Support), Safeguard Department when he left the Agency in 1992. In addition, he served as a member of SAGSI (Standing Advisory Group for Safeguards Implementation), an advisory body to the Director General of the IAEA, for some nine years until the end of December 2006. Currently, he is a member of Board of Trusties, HFSP (Human Frontier Science Program), an international organization for promoting innovative, international and inter-disciplinary researches related to life sciences, that was created by G7 in 1989 and located at Strasbourg, France. He is also a Special Assistant to Minister of MEXT. He holds the current office of NMCC since April 2003. NMCC plays a key role in Japan's SSAC (State System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials), facilitating both domestic and international safeguards, and contributes to securing physical protection of nuclear materials.

Tape small photograph James W. ( Jim) Tape

Jim Tape has more than thirty years of experience in nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security, and arms control verification technology development and policy analysis. He retired from Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2005 after serving in a variety of technical and managerial positions, and continues to work as an independent consultant. Dr. Tape has served as a senior technical advisor to U.S. delegations to the U.S./Russian Federation/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Trilateral Initiative and to the IAEA Board of Governors' Committee on Safeguards and Verification. He has also served as the chairman of the Subpanel on Safeguards and Security for the American Nuclear Society Special Panel on Protection and Management of Plutonium; as the U.S. member of the Working Group on Safeguards and Nonproliferation for the IAEA 1997 International Fuel Cycle Symposium; as chair of the National Nuclear Security Administration Combating Terrorism Task Force Working Group on Nuclear Materials Management; and was a member of the American Physical Society Panel on Public Affairs Nuclear Energy Study Group. Dr. Tape is currently the U.S. member of the IAEA Director General's Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI). In 1994 and 1995 Dr. Tape was elected president of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM), an international technical professional society devoted to all aspects of improving the management of nuclear materials. The INMM elevated him to the rank of Fellow in 2000, and has honored him with its Meritorious Service and Special Service Awards. Dr. Tape has a BA in physics from the Johns Hopkins University and a PhD in experimental nuclear physics from Rutgers University.

Cooley small photograph Jill Cooley

Jill Cooley is director of the Division of Concepts and Planning in the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Department of Safeguards responsible for the development and standardization of safeguards concepts, approaches, procedures, and practices including the new safeguards strengthening measures. Ms. Cooley has over 25 years of experience with international and domestic safeguards, particularly in the development of safeguards for uranium enrichment plants. She has been with the IAEA for 12 years, initially as head of the Statistical Analysis Section where she was responsible for coordinating the development and implementation of statistical methods for safeguards data evaluation and for organizing the Agency's environmental sampling programme. She is currently working with member States to identify measures to further strengthen the safeguards system. Previous to her assignments with the IAEA, Ms. Cooley was manager of the Safeguards Program of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, responsible for technical support to the IAEA and various U.S. federal agencies in the development and implementation of international safeguards inspection approaches and procedures. Ms. Cooley has an MS degree in nuclear engineering from the University of Wisconsin, USA.

Shea small photograph Tom Shea

Prior to joining Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Tom Shea served for 24 years at the International Atomic Energy Agency, where he helped to establish the basic IAEA safeguards implementation parameters and defined safeguards approaches for many complex nuclear facilities. He headed a section of inspectors for 11 years, responsible for safeguards implementation in Japan, India, Taiwan, Australia, and Indonesia. He established the Project Office for the JNFL Rokkasho Reprocessing Facility, and successfully headed a Tripartite Project with the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, regarding safeguards at centrifuge enrichment plants equipped with Russian centrifuges.

During the period from 1996 through 2003, Dr. Shea was Head of the IAEA Trilateral Initiative Office in the Department of Safeguards, responsible for program development and implementation activities associated with a possible new verification role for the IAEA: weapon-origin and other fissile material released from military applications. He also headed IAEA activities related to a fissile material cutoff treaty, publishing a number of articles and briefing delegates to the United Nations Conference on Disarmament on six occasions.

Shea was named to a UN Security Council Panel on disarmament in Iraq in 1999 and carried out an IAEA investigation of the technical requirements for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. He wrote the proliferation-resistance and physical protection parts of the U.S. Generation IV Roadmap and led the IAEA Safeguards Departmental activities related to proliferation resistance.

Shea was awarded a Special Fellowship from the United States Atomic Energy Commission, and received his Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering and his Doctor of Philosophy in Nuclear Science from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management.

Mathews small photograph Carrie Mathews

Carrie Mathews is currently the Nonproliferation Regimes and Agreements Program Manager at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Her current interests include the nonproliferation issues associated with a nuclear energy renaissance, enhancing international safeguards and increasing the global pool of safeguards experts, and providing technical support to the development of U.S. nonproliferation policy. She began her career in nuclear material safeguards and nonproliferation at PNNL in 1993, after earning her B.S. from Arizona State University, focusing on Engineering and Finance. She spent four years working in the National Nuclear Security Administration in Washington D.C., coordinating projects in the areas of bilateral safeguards cooperation, information analysis, and Russian nuclear nonproliferation infrastructure. She led a multi-laboratory effort to prepare the U.S. Department of Energy complex for entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol, including editing a Handbook and designing and conducting training workshops.

Ms. Mathews' technical expertise spans the following areas:

  • Nuclear material safeguards, particularly control and accounting

  • Nuclear nonproliferation regime, U.S. policy, and bilateral engagement

  • Sustainability and infrastructure to ensure long-term support of upgraded security systems at foreign facilities

  • Program and project management.

Peterson small photograph Danielle Peterson

Danielle Peterson joined PNNL in 2005. She is a graduate of the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle.

Osabe small photograph Takeshi Osabe

Mr. Osabe has more than 28 years’ experience with design and implementation of nuclear material control and accounting practices at Japan Nuclear Fuel Company (JNF) BWR fuel fabrication facility, including preparation for IAEA safeguards implementation. Since 1996, he was significantly advanced to implementation of short notice random inspection concept for all low enriched fuel fabrication facilities in Japan, under the IAEA strengthened safeguards regime.

Mr. Osabe retired from Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd at the end of March 1998 and currently he is a Technical Advisor for the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) Japan. He has been designated as a Safeguards Special Assistant to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) from 1994 – 2002. Mr. Osabe has instructed training courses held in Australia, Argentina, and Japan.

From 2002 – 2005, Mr. Osabe worked as a part time technical consultant to the IAEA for upgrading of nuclear material accounting and control function in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Currently he is a part time consultant for the IAEA establishing guidance for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material Control Accountancy for Nuclear Security.

In addition, Mr. Osabe has been designated as a Secretary of the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM) Japan Chapter since 1991. He has been a designated administrative director of INMM Japan Chapter since 2000.

Kuhn small photograph Erwin Kuhn

Erwin Kuhn is a chemical engineer of German nationality. He worked for nine years at the nuclear research center in Karlsruhe, Germany, in the area of reprocessing development, analytical chemistry and in-line instrumentation. He joined the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory of the IAEA in 1975 as supervisor of uranium and plutonium chemistry. After six years he transferred to the Statistical Evaluation Section where his main task was to set up a database for DA and NDA verification results and implement a system for the evaluation of measurement quality.

As a designated Safeguards Inspector, Mr. Kuhn was extensively involved in reviewing facility operators’ measurement systems worldwide. After the Gulf War he participated in 11 out of the first 23 Inspections in Iraq. During the IAEA’s Programme 93+2 he was Task Leader for Environmental Sampling for Safeguards, which was successfully implemented as a routine activity in January 1996.

Mr. Kuhn was Head of the Statistical Analysis Section before he transferred in 2001 to Japan as Head of the IAEA’s Tokyo Regional Office. He retired from the Agency in September of 2006 and is now occasionally working as a consultant for the IAEA and for Japanese facilities. His work interest continues to be in the area of quality of nuclear material measurements; one example being the preparation for the 2010 update of the International Target Values for Nuclear Material Measurements.

Menlove small photograph Howard O. Menlove

Howard Menlove received his M.S. Degree in Physics from the University of Michigan, and his Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering from Stanford University in 1966. Prior to working at Los Alamos, Dr. Menlove had considerable experience in neutron and fission physics and gamma-ray spectroscopy. He spent a year in Karlsruhe, Germany supported by a Fulbright Award. His recent work has been in the area of research and development of instrumentation for international safeguards, neutron activation analysis techniques, and the application of nuclear methods to the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials.

Dr. Menlove is currently a Los Alamos Fellow working in the area of nuclear nonproliferation and international safeguards. He has more than 40 years of experience at Los Alamos with much of the time spent in support of IAEA inspection instrumentation and methods. He has helped to develop much of the technology used for plutonium verification in reprocessing and MOX fabrication plants.

Shirley Johnson small photograph Shirley J. Johnson

Ms. Johnson received her Bachelor of Science in Chemistry from Gonzaga University in 1969. She continued her graduate studies in Separations Chemistry, and Laboratory instrumentation and methodology at the Hanford Graduate Center from 1969 – 1972.

She started her career working as an Analytical Chemist with expertise in separation systems at the Hanford Nuclear Site from 1969-1980. Ms. Johnson provided R & D support to separation processes, including the Purex Reprocessing Plant, the Hanford Plutonium Purification and Conversion Facility and the Cesium and Strontium Separation and Isolation Plant. In 1980 she transferred to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory where she completed R & D work to establish sampling and measurement methodology in order to perform speciation studies that would help define the transport mechanisms of nuclear material during and after the Three-Mile-Island incident.

In 1982, Ms. Johnson was selected to work as a safeguards inspector for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). During her time at the IAEA, her work was focused toward the implementation of safeguards at reprocessing plants, primarily in Germany and Japan. She was Group Leader and then Section Head in SGOA Division for reprocessing and research facilities in Japan. In 1991 she was a member of the 4th IAEA inspection team to Iraq. Ms. Johnson was Head of the JNFL Project from 2001 to 2006 and then Section Head of SGOB1 (India, Pakistan, Africa, Canada, and Switzerland) until she retired in April 2007.

Since retirement from the IAEA Ms. Johnson has established her own consulting business, Tucker Creek Consulting, PLLC, with a focus on nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament issues. She provides expert assistance in the areas of safeguards approaches and implementation, safeguards by design, process monitoring and system authentication. She is also working to develop safeguards approaches for verification of an FMCT. In addition, she provides support to BNL in their exhibit booth at technical meetings to recruit candidates for the IAEA in safeguards. Ms. Johnson has also been actively involved in lecturing at various US national laboratory intern courses and international non-proliferation courses.

Ms. Johnson has produced numerous papers on reprocessing safeguards, analytical chemistry techniques, facility design verification, and verification of an FMCT. She has held office positions within the American Nuclear Society, the American Chemical Society, and the Institute for Nuclear Materials Management.

KUNO small photograph Yusuke Kuno

Yusuke Kuno received his M.S. Degree in Material Chemistry from the Yokohama National University in 1979, and his Ph.D. in Nuclear Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1993. Dr. Kuno had worked for the Tokai Reprocessing Plant of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) for 20 years, particularly in the area of development of Safeguards verification measurement techniques and accountancy analysis, in collaboration with LANL, LLNL, ORNL and IAEA. Dr. Kuno was dispatched to Harwell Laboratory and Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment of UKAEA as a researcher in 1986/87. Dr. Kuno headed the Analytical Laboratory of the Tokai Reprocessing Plant from 1993 to 1999 as General Manager.

Dr. Kuno was appointed the Head of Safeguards Analytical Laboratory (SAL) of the IAEA in Seibersdorf, Austria in 1999, after having led the IAEA laboratory staff members in nuclear verification measurement and environmental sampling program of Safeguards for seven years, including the verification activities of Iraq and Iran.

Dr. Kuno’s present position is Deputy Director and Prime Scientist, Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) that promotes development of Safeguards and other non-proliferation technologies, such as proliferation resistance and transparency for the future nuclear fuel cycle. Dr. Kuno is also Professor at the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Research Laboratory of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management in the Graduate School of the University of Tokyo. Dr. Kuno is the vice chairman of the Committee on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Safeguards and Security, Atomic Energy Society of Japan. (Member of INMM).

Baute small photograph Jacques Baute

Dr. Jacques Baute is the Director of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Division of Safeguards Information Management, within the Department of Safeguards. Mr. Baute joined the IAEA in May 1994 to direct the inspections and assessment of the weaponization parts of Iraq’s clandestine nuclear weapons program. In August 1997, he assumed duties as Head of Operations, with responsibility for planning and implementing all field operations in Iraq. On more than 20 occasions between 1994 and 1998 and to start operations in 2992, he was Chief Inspector of the Nuclear Monitoring Group in Iraq. Beginning in December 2003, he was responsible for the assessment of the weapons development part of Libya’s previously undeclared nuclear program. At the beginning of his professional career, Mr. Baute joined the Commisariat à l’Énergie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Commission). As staff of the Division of Military Applications (CEA/DAM) from 1981 to 1992, he was successively responsible for studies of material properties under high pressure, Section Head in charge of computer simulations of nuclear weapons, and Service Head for nuclear warhead physics phenomenology. In 1992, he started his work on Iraq’s nuclear weapons program as an expert assigned for nine months to the United Nations Special Commission and participating in the IAEA’s inspections program.

Dr. Baute graduated from the École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, Paris in 1981 and obtained a Doctorate in high-pressure physics in 1984. Between 1981 and 1994, in addition to his work at CEA, he taught Statistical Physics, Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics at École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures, at various university levels.

Perricos small photograph Demetrius Perricos

Dr. Dimitri Perricos was born in Piraeus, Greece in December 1935. He joined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1972 as a nuclear safeguards inspector. During his 28- year career at the IAEA he influenced the way the nuclear safeguards system was developed to its present state. Dr. Perricos was the head of a special group of experts which developed the Safeguards Implementation and Evaluation Criteria in early 1990s.

He joined the Iraq Action Team on its establishment in April 1991 as the head of operations, leading the first nuclear inspection team into Iraq under Security Council Resolution 687. He was Team Leader of a special group appointed in late 1991, to verify the completeness and correctness of the South African declaration under its comprehensive safeguards agreement and the dismantling of its nuclear weapons programme. He served as the Director of the IAEA Division of Operations dealing with DPRK nuclear issues from 1993 to 1999.

In 2000, Dr. Perricos joined Dr. Blix at UN New York as the Director of Planning and Operations of the United Nations Monitoring and Verification Commission (UNMOVIC).He led the first UNMOVIC inspection team into Iraq in November 2002. In January 2003 he was appointed Deputy Executive Chairman of the organization. In July 2003, he was appointed Acting Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC following the departure of Dr. Blix.

Dr. Perricos holds a PhD in Chemistry from the University of Athens.

Foundations of International Safeguards

Center for Global Security

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